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Chicago Aikido Club

4427 North Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois 60640 • P.O. Box 180224, Chicago, Illinois 60618-0617

info@chicagoaikidoclub.com • 773-634-9824 • www.chicagoaikidoclub.com

Glossary

A | B | C | D | G | H | I | J | K | M | N | O | R | S | T | U | W | Y | Z

A        

(Top)
Ai (合)
Union/harmony.
Aiki (合気)
1: union/harmony (ai) with the energy of the universe (ki) 2: Harmony of intent and movement between an aikidōka and their aitei or an uke and nage.
Aikidō (合気道)
1: The way (dō) of union/harmony (ai) with the energy of the universe (ki). 2: Modern budō developed by Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969) based on older forms of jūjutsu (grappling) and kenjutsu (sword fighting). Employs locking, pinning and throwing techniques utilizing the principle of nonresistance to cause an opponent's own momentum to work against him.
Aikidōka (合気道家).
One who studies aikidō.
Aikidō Schools of Ueshiba (ASU).
Federation of aikidō dojō under Mitsugi Saotome Shihan established in the late 1970s. Receives its ranks directly from the Aikikai. Headquartered in Myakka City, Florida.
Aikikai (合気会)
1: Refers to the Aikikai Foundation or Zaidanhōjinaikikai, the original aikidō organization recognized by the Japanese government in 1940 and headquartered at Aikikai Hombu Dojo in Tokyo. Umbrella for various national and international aikido organizations. Presently lead by Moriteru Ueshiba Dōshu 2: used to describe aikidō as that taught by Morihei Ueshiba.
Aitei (相手)
Practice partner. The person performing the role of uke or nage.
Ashi (足).
Foot.
Atemi (当身).
A strike or blow.

B        

(Top)
Bō (棒).
Long stick of wood or bamboo used in Japanese martial arts as a weapon for striking, crushing or thrusting, or as a defensive tool for blocking attacks or immobilizing opponents through joint-locking. Derived from staff used in farming or other physical labor. Sometimes made of metal or metal-plated for extra strength. A full-size bō (6 shaku or 181.8 cm long) is sometimes called a rokushakubō. Bō range from heavy to light, rigid to highly flexible, and include ornately decorated works of art. Used in bōjutsu.
Bōgu (防具).
Protection. Practice armor.
Bōjutsu (棒術).
The “Way of the Staff.” Japanese martial art of using a bō. Associated with Okinawan kobudō (古武道) or with Japanese koryu budo. Morihei Ueshiba O-Sensei was known to practice with bō.
Bokken (木剣).
Wooden practice sword. Also called a bokutō.
Bokutō (木刀).
Wooden practice sword. Also called a bokken.
Budō (武道).
Literally, the “Way of the Warrior Arts”; martial arts.
Bujutsu (武術).
Traditional Japanese arts of combat.
Buki (武器).
Weapons.
Bushi (武士).
A warrior.
Bushidō (武士道).
Literally, the “Way of the Warrior”; the code of conduct of the samurai.

C        

(Top)
Chūshin (中心).
Center.

D        

(Top)
Dan (段).
A rank or grade; a black belt rank. In aikidō, there are ten black belt ranks that increment from one to ten. Ex: shodan, nidan, sandan, etc.
Deshi (弟子).
A student or pupil.
Dō (道).
The path or way. Character also read as “michi.”
Do (胴).
The trunk of the body; to strike or cut the trunk of the body.
Dōjo (道場).
Literally, the “Place of the Way”; a martial arts school.
Dōjo-Cho (道場長).
The head of the dojo.
Dōshu (道主).
Literally, the “Master of the Way”; title given to the successor of the direct line under Morihei Ueshiba and leader of the Aikido Foundation and World Aikido Headquarters. The present Doshu is Moriteru Ueshiba (1951-), son of the previous Doshu, Kishomaru Ueshiba (1921-1999), and grandson of Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969).

G        

(Top)
Gendai Budō (現代武道).
Modern Japanese martial arts, of which aikido is one example.
Geri (蹴り).
A kick. Ex: maegeri (front kick), ushirogeri (back kick).
Gi (儀).
The traditional white training uniform used in Japanese martial arts. Also called a dogi.

H        

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Hakama (袴).
Wide pleated pants worn over the gi. The traditional garb of the samurai. In many aikido schools, hakama are worn only by yudansha.
Hanmi (半身).
Literally, “half body”; the basic triangular stance for starting and ending all aikido techniques.
Hanmi Handachi (半身半立ち).
Techniques executed starting with uke standing and nage sitting.
Hara (原).
The lower abdomen. According to East Asian martial arts, the source of one’s ki.
Hiji (肘).
Elbow.
Hiza (膝).
Knee
Hombu (本部).
Literally, “headquarters”; name given to the headquarters dojo of the Aikido Foundation and Aikido World Headquarters.

I        

(Top)
Iemoto (家元).
Head of a martial arts school or system. In koryu budo This system that the heir of a martial arts school or system should be the son, either natural or adopted for the sake of succession, was common in koryu (old) budo and is referred to as iemoto.
Irimi (入り身).
Literally, “entering”; entering into the line of attack or the frame of uke’s body to execute a technique; to practice entering technique.

J        

(Top)
Jō (杖).
A short wooden staff used as a weapon in traditional Japanese martial arts.
Jō Dori (杖取り).
Jo disarmament techniques.
Jiuwaza (自由技).
Freestyle technique.

K        

(Top)
Kaeshiwaza (返し技).
Reversal techniques. Inverting a technique back upon the person performing it, thus switching one’s role from uke to nage.
Kagami Biraki (鏡開き).
Traditional Japanese ceremony held by dojo to usher in the New Year. Literally means “opening the mirror.”
Kaiten (回転).
To rotate.
Kamae (構え).
A posture or stance. Ex: jōdan (high), chūdan (middle) and gedan (low).
Kami (神).
A god or spirit.
Kamiza (上座).
The top seat; the seat of honor.
Kangeiko (寒稽古).
Literally “cold training.” Refers to training in the cold during the winter months in order to develop physical and spiritual stamina.
Kaotsuki (顔突き).
A punch to the face.
Kata (肩).
Shoulder.
Kata (型). Forms.
Pre-determined martial arts routines used to practice basic movements and techniques.
Kata Tori (型取り).
Frontal attack in which uke grabs one of uke’s shoulder with one hand.
Katana (刀).
A Japanese long sword.
Katatete (片手).
One hand.
Katate Ryote Mochi (片手両手持ち).
Frontal attack in which uke grabs one of nage’s forearms with both hands. Also called morote tori.
Katate Tori (片手取り).
Frontal attack in which uke grabs one of uke’s wrist with one hand.
Keiko (稽古).
Study or practice; an aikido training session.
Ken (剣).
Sword.
Ki (気).
Spirit; energy; air; the energy of the universe.
Kiai (気合).
A piercing scream used to unbalance an opponent; also thought of as a release of concentrated spiritual and physical power from the hara.
Ki Society (気の研究会).
School of aikido founded by Koichi Tohei Shihan. Places great emphasis on the concepts of ki and kokyū. Japanese name is the Ki no kenkyūkai.
Kihon Waza (基本技).
Basic techniques.
Kōhai (後輩).
A junior student. Note- it is not considered polite to directly address junior students as kohai.
Kokyū (呼吸).
Literally, breath or breathing; using breath to concentrate and channel one’s ki.
Kokyū Dōsa(呼吸動作).
Seated two person exercise in which uke grabs nage with a ryōte dori attack, and nage attempts to unbalance uke with a minimum amount of strength and by staying relaxed. Also called kokyū tanden hō.
Kokyū Tanden Hō (呼吸丹田方).
Seated two person exercise in which uke grabs nage with a ryote dori attack, and nage attempts to unbalance uke with a minimum amount of strength and by staying relaxed. Also called kokyū dōsa.
Kokyūnage (呼吸投げ).
Literally, a “breath throw”. Throwing techniques involving coordinated release of one’s ki.
Koshi (腰).
Hip.
Koshi Nage (腰投げ).
A hip throw.
Kote (小手).
Forearm.
Kubi (首).
Neck.
Kubi Shime(首締め).
Tight Neck; One hand grab and neck choke from the rear.
Kumijo (組杖).
Paired practice with jo.
Kumitachi (組太刀).
Paired practice with swords.
Kyū (級).
A white belt rank. In Aikido, there are six white belt ranks that decrement from six to one.

M        

(Top)
Maai (間合い).
Timing.
Mae Geri (前蹴り).
Front kick.
Mae Ukemi (前受身).
Forward roll.
Makoto (誠).
The truth. Name of aikido schools under Larry Reynosa Shihan: Makoto Dojo.
Men (面).
Face.
Mentsuki (面突き).
A punch to the front of the face.
Misogi (禊).
Purification of mind, body and spirit.
Misogi Shūhō (禊修).
 
Purification ceremony to cleanse one’s spirit. Usually performed in water, such as in a river, the sea or beneath a freezing waterfall.
Morote Tori (諸手取り).
Frontal attack in which uke grabs one of nage’s arms with both hands. Also called katate ryote mochi.
Muna Tori (胸取り).
Frontal attack in which uke grabs one of nage’s lapels with one hand. Also called mune tori.
Mune (胸).
Chest.
Mune Tori (胸取り).
Frontal attack in which uke grabs one of nage’s lapels with one hand. Also called muna tori.
Mune Tsuki (胸突き).
Thrust or punch to the chest.
Mushin (無心).
No mind; a mind without ego.
Musubi (結び).
Literally, a knot or bind. In aikido, blending or merging.

N        

(Top)
Nage (投げ).
A throw, a throwing technique (Ex: shihonage, iriminage, kaitennage); One who throws (one who performs the role of defender in training).
Naginata (長刀).
A halberd; a pole sword.

O        

(Top)
Obi (帯).
Belt.
Omote (表).
The front; Frontal technique, also called irimi.
O Sensei (大先生).
Literally, “Great Teacher”; honorific title given to Morihei Ueshiba, founder of aikido.

R        

(Top)
Randori (乱取り).
Freestyle practice against multiple attackers.
Rei (礼).
A bow.
Rokushakubō (六尺棒).
A full-size bō (6 shaku or 181.8 cm long).
Ryote (両手).
Both hands.
Ryote Dori (両手取り).
Frontal attack in which uke grabs both of nage’s wrists front.

S        

(Top)
Samurai (侍).
The ruling warrior class of feudal Japan.
Seiza (正座).
Formal sitting position.
Senpai (先輩).
A senior student; a form of honorific address for a senior student.
Sensei (先生).
Literally, “One who has gone before”; A teacher or instructor; An aikido teacher; An honorific address given to an aikido teacher.
Shihan (市販).
Master teacher.
Shikko (膝行).
Knee walking. Used in suwariwaza.
Shinai (竹刀).
A bamboo practice sword.
Shinken (真剣).
Literally, a “real sword”; Refers to seriousness or approaching matters with a serious attitude.
Shōmen (正面).
Literally, the front; the front of the dojo which houses the kamiza and picture of O Sensei; the front of one’s face, as in shomen uchi.
Shōmen Uchi (正面打ち).
A strike to the front of one’s face.
Shugyō (修行).
Study, training.
Suburi (素振り).
Practice swing or stroke (as with a sword).
Suwari Waza (座り技).
Seated techniques.

T        

(Top)
Tachi Dori (太刀取り).
Sword disarming techniques.
Taijutsu (体術).
Empty-hand techniques.
Takemusu Aiki (武産合気).
Concept in aikido of generating spontaneous technique without planning or premeditation.
Tanden (丹田).
The center of one’s being.
Tanto (短刀).
Wooden practice knife.
Tanto Dori (短刀取り).
Knife disarmament techniques.
Tatami (畳).
Bamboo mat used to cover floors in traditional Japanese homes. Indoor aikido practice was traditionally practice on tatami mats.
Te (手).
Hand.
Tekubi (手首).
Wrist.
Tenkan (転換).
Literally, conversion; the basic turning motion that is the foundation of aikido technique; to practice tenkan.
Tomiki (富木).
Competitive school of aikido with tournaments. Founded by Kenji Tomiki (1900-1979).
Tsuki (突き).
A punch or thrust (with a sword). Ex: kaostuki, menstuki, munestuki.

U        

(Top)
Uchi Deshi (内弟子).
A live-in student or disciple.
Uke (受け).
Literally, a receiver; one who receives (one who performs the role of attacker in training).
Ukemi (受身).
Techniques for falling or rolling. Ex: mae ukemi, ushiro ukemi; to follow a technique to allow nage to practice.
United States Aikido Federation (USAF).
US-based aikido federation directly linked to Honbu Dojo in Japan.
Ura (裏).
To the rear; Backward technique, also called tenkan.
Ushiro (後ろ).
Back, backwards.
Ushiro Geri (後ろ蹴り).
Rear kick.
Ushiro Kubishime (後ろ頚絞め).
Rear attack in which uke grabs nage’s neck with one hand and one wrist without the other hand.
Ushiro Ryōkata Tori (後ろ両肩取り).
Rear attack in which uke grabs both of nage’s shoulders.
Ushiro Ryōte Tori (後ろ両手取り).
Rear attack in which uke grabs both of nage’s wrists. Also called ushiro tekubi tori.
Ushiro Tekubi Tori (後ろ手首取り).
Rear attack in which uke grabs both of nage’s wrists. Also called ushiro ryote tori.
Ushiro Ukemi (後ろ受身).
Backward roll.
Ushiro Waza (後ろ技).
Techniques characterized by backward movement.

W       

(Top)
Waza (技).
A technique.
Basic Aikido Waza
  • Ikkyō (一教) 1st Technique (wrist lock)
  • Nikyō (二教) 2nd Technique (wrist twist)
  • Sankyō (三教) 3rd Technique (hand twist)
  • Yonkyō (四教) 4th Technique (hand lock/forearm twist)
  • Gokyō (五教) 5th Technique
  • Hiji Nage (肘投げ) “Elbow Throw”
  • Iriminage (入り身投げ) “Entering Throw”
  • Jūjinage (十字投げ) “Figure Ten Throw” (cross arm throw)
  • Kaitennage (回転投げ) “Rotating Throw”
  • Kataguruma (肩車) “Shoulder Throw”
  • Kokyūnage (呼吸投げ) “Breath Throw”
  • Koshinage (腰投げ) “Hip Throw”
  • Kotegasehi (小手返し) “Return the Forearm”
  • Shihōnage (四方投げ) “Four-Way Throw”
  • Sumiotoshi (隅落とし) “Corner Drop”
  • Tenchinage (天地投げ) “Heaven and Earth Throw”

Y        

(Top)
Yokomen (横面).
The side of one’s face.
Yokomen Uchi (横面打ち).
A strike to the side of the head.
Yoshinkan (養神館).
School of aikido founded by Gozo Shioda Shihan.
Yubi (指).
Finger.
Yudansha (有段者).
An aikidoka of dan rank.

Z        

(Top)
Zaidanhōjinaikikai (財団法人合気会): the Aikikai Foundation.
The original aikidō organization recognized by the Japanese government in 1940 and headquartered at Aikikai Hombu Dojo in Tokyo. Umbrella for various national and international aikido organizations. Presently lead by Moriteru Ueshiba Dōshu. Also refer to as the Aikikai.
Zanshin (残心).
Awareness.
Zenpo (全方).
All directions.

info@chicagoaikidoclub.com773-634-9824
Chicago Aikido Club • P.O. Box 180224, • Chicago Il 60618-0617
the Chicago Aikido Club is affilated with the Aikido Schools of Ueshiba.